Archaeological discoveries and researches have been done on the works and remnants of ancient buildings and works of historians show that the Romans were the first who were aware of the practical value and manner of cement in the content of hardening and setting.
2600 years BC until the mid-eighteenth century in addition to clay puddle and gypsum, another coherent material was artificially produced that was named baked lime. Which was obtained by baked limestone and was known as quick lime (Cao) and by water splashing it was changed into the hydrated lime that was subsequently converted into lime powder.
Lime mortar mentioned in the above, individually was used to build brick walls of temples and the like but in the construction of water channels had no use, because of the lack of hardening quality under water. Therefore it could not meet the constructional needs of water and marine such as bridges, dams, docks and so on.
Centuries passed before the Romans achieved a significant discovery and add a substance called pozzolan to the hydrated lime and made a mortar with water that could stay in a hard manner under water and in the air after adhesion. After this great discovery, the benefits of clay puddle mixed with baked lime was discovered, that can be considered the first step to make cement.
In that era, the products obtained by mixing pozzolan and baked lime, called cement which is derived from the Greek term, CAEDER(meaning to cut, rupture and break) and is applied to crushed stones (grits). The term of CAEMENTE until the mid-18th century was used for those cases that were mixed with the desired object, caused to increase the object hardness and stiffness.
Cement in its modern sense for the first time was used by Parker from England in 1796. The cement term in German, English and French languages are applied to all materials with adhesion properties, except the compounds of bitumen and asphalt that are used in buildings and roads. Portland cement in German was standardized for the first time in 1878 with the DIN 1164 symbol.
Towards the unknown boundaries:
1756 AD is considered the beginning of a new chapter in the history of Portland cement. In these years, John Smaetone from England who lived between the years1792-1724 had a great and valuable discovery. A hydophobic mortar was required to re-establishment the pharos Eddy stone Leuchtturm in Plymouth port. Finally by great efforts and many experiments the especial quality of water lime mortar was discovered for the first time by baking the limestone and in this way he was faced a valuable phenomenon. This means that the chemical analysis of limestone shows the clay puddle existence in the mixture.
But this great discovery was not very welcomed till James Parker from England, in 1796 obtained a product of baking London Marley stone Septarienton, (Londoner) that called it Roman Cement.
Between the years of 1819-1815 two great Scientifics in the name of Victa (1786-1861) and the another German named J.Fjohn (1782-1847) of their studies and examinations separately found that by baking the mixture of limestone and clay puddle up to 25% - 30% the best hydraulic product will be obtained.
Aspdin an English architect, from Leeds in 1824 produced an artificial mixture of limestone and clay puddle and ground it according to “wet” method, until get the form of grout (slurry) and well homogenized. Then this mixture is heated in a lime kiln in low temperature i.e. below the temperature of melting (sinter temperature) and the obtained products were called Portland cements due to a close similarity to a yellow stone named (Portland Stone) that is extracted from Portland Island in England. In 1843 AD W.Aspdin started to produce the mentioned Portland cement in a new established factory and during the constructing of British parliament found that this cement has higher quality than Romans cements. Future assessments cleared that the main reason of this good quality is due to the Portland cement mixture was heated until the point of bleeding (Sintering).